A large tree commonly 65′, with a wide spread canopy.
Leaves: evergreen, thick, shiny, dark green above, lighter below, spine toothed margins.
Flowers: Male and female borne in separate catkins on a tree.
Fruit: Acorns, 1″ long, cup narrow at base.
Twigs: grayish white to brown, brittle, tomentose when young, smooth as age.
Bark: Gray and smooth while young, darker and furrowed with age.
Comments: Long lived tree, good for wildlife, dense shade, prefers acid soils, acorns are rich in oil.